By Hans Volker Klapdor-Kleingrothaus

Nuclear double beta decay is likely one of the such a lot promising instruments for probing beyond-the-standard-model physics on beyond-accelerator strength scales. it's already now probing the TeV scale, on which new physics may still present itself in response to theoretical expectancies. merely within the early Eighties used to be it identified that double beta decay yields details at the Majorana mass of the exchanged neutrino. at the moment, the sharpest certain for the electron neutrino mass arises from this procedure. it is just within the final 10 years that the even more far-reaching capability of double beta decay has been found. at the present time, the potential for double beta decay encompasses a wide diversity of issues which are both correct to particle physics and astrophysics, resembling plenty of heavy neutrinos, of sneutrinos, as SUSY types, compositeness, leptoquarks, left-right symmetric versions, and exams of Lorentz symmetry and equivalence precept within the neutrino area. Double beta decay has turn into imperative these days for fixing the matter of the neutrino mass spectrum and the constitution of the neutrino mass matrix - including current and destiny sunlight and atmospheric neutrino oscillation experiments. a few destiny double beta experiments (like Genius) might be able to be at the same time neutrino observatories for double beta decay and low-energy sun neutrinos, and observatories for chilly darkish topic of final sensitivity. This necessary publication outlines the improvement of double beta learn from its beginnings until eventually its most up-to-date achievements, and likewise offers the outlook for its hugely fascinating destiny.

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Recent general reviews can be found in [Fae98**-II], [Suh98]. A new field theory approach trying to avoid the problems in the various QRPA approaches has been presented by F. Simkovic and G. Pantis [Sim99a**-II]. For a comparison of matrix elements from different calculations and approaches see also [HM99*-III], [Sto2000**-II]. 3 gives a useful compilation for the example of 76Ge decay. The matrix elements show a impressive agreement. 5. 3 Shell Model Calculations An effort to calculate double beta matrix elements in heavy deformed nuclei has been made in a pseudo-SU(3) model by [Hir94a].

Mohapatra [Moh86*-IV, 86a*-IV|; J. D. V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, M. Hirsch, S. Kovalenko, H. Pas, U. Sarkar, [Hir95**-IV, 96*-IV], [Hir96d*-IV, 98a*-IV], [Kla99c*-IV]; E. Takasugi [Tak98]; 0 . Panella [Pan95, 2000*-IV]; G. 1. 1) she obtained a lifetime in excess of 1017 years even if the daughter nucleus (A, Z+2) "were more stable by 20 times the electron mass". H. Furry [Fur39*-I] showed that the "symmetrical" theory of neutrino and antineutrino proposed by E. Majorana [Maj37**-I] (Fig. 3) could give rise to another process, not observed until now, namely no-neutrino double beta decay (Fig.

V. 18 Ten Years of Heidelberg-Moscow Experiment - a Fresh Look, H. V. 3 GENIUS — A New Experiment with Large Discovery Potential for Particle and Astrophysics, Proposal, November 20, 1997, first draft, H. V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus J. Hellmig and M. Hirsch, [Kla97c**] . . 4 GENIUS — A Supersensitive Germanium Detector System for Rare Events, Proposal, August 1999, second draft, H. V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus L. Baudis, G. Heusser, B. Majorovits and H. Pas, [Kla99a**] 1281 1 Prom the Early Days until the Gauge Theory Era Chapter 1 Double Beta Decay — Historical Retrospective and Perspectives The history of double beta decay using the nucleus as a complicated laboratory for a wide range of particle physics starts more than 60 years ago.